Gascon cattle originated in the Pyrenees region of France.  The first herd book was created in 1856.

The Pyrenees mountain region is known to have the harshest climate in France and because of this the breed adapts well to vast ranges in temperature and also adapts to all types of terrain.  They outwinter well, walk well over rugged ground, can survive on scarce vegetation and thrive well in poor conditions.